(1) Field trials. The field experiment is the fundamental way to obtain the best fertilization amount, fertilization period and fertilization method for various crops, and also the basic link for screening and verifying soil nutrient testing technology and establishing fertilization index system. Through field trials, master the optimal fertilization amount, base and topdressing distribution ratio, fertilization period and fertilization method for each cropping unit; find out the basic parameters such as soil nutrient correction coefficient, soil fertilization amount, crop fertilizer requirement and fertilizer utilization rate; Construct a crop fertilization model to provide a basis for fertilization zones and fertilizer formulations.
(2) Soil testing. Soil testing is one of the important basis for formulating fertilizer formula. With the continuous adjustment of China's planting structure, high-yield crop varieties are constantly emerging, the structure and quantity of fertilization have undergone great changes, and the soil nutrient pool has also undergone significant changes. Through the soil nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and medium and trace element nutrient tests, the soil fertility capacity can be understood.
(3) Formulation design. Fertilizer formula design is the core of soil testing and formulating. By summarizing field trials, soil nutrient data, etc., the division of fertilization zones in different regions is divided. At the same time, according to the similarities and differences of climate, landform, soil and farming system, combined with expert experience, the fertilization formulas of different crops are proposed.
(4) Calibration test. In order to ensure the accuracy of fertilizer formula and minimize the risk of batch production and large-area application of formula fertilizer, three treatments of formula fertilization, farmer custom fertilization and blank fertilization are set in each fertilization partition unit to the main local crops and their main The planting variety is the research object, compare the yield increase effect of formula fertilization, verify the fertilization parameters, verify and improve the fertilizer formula, and improve the technical parameters of soil testing formula fertilization.
(5) Formulation processing. The implementation of the formula into the farmer's field is the most critical link to improve and popularize the soil testing and fertilization technology. At present, there are different modes in different regions. The most important and most promising mode of operation is market operation, factory processing, and network operation. This model adapts to the current situation of low quality of science and technology, small scale of land management, and separation of technology among rural farmers in China.
6) Demonstration promotion. In order to promote the soil testing and formula fertilization technology can be implemented in the field, it is necessary to solve the problem of market-based operation of soil testing and formula fertilization technology, and let the farmers see the actual effect, which is the “bottleneck” restricting the promotion of soil testing and formula fertilization technology. . Establish a demonstration area for soil testing and fertilization, create a window for farmers, establish a model, and comprehensively demonstrate the effect of soil testing and formula fertilization technology, which is the work to be done before promotion. Promoting the "one bag of fertilizer" model, turning the soil testing formula fertilization technology into products, is also conducive to breaking the "hard ice" of technology promotion "last mile". (7) Publicity and training. Soil testing and formula fertilization technology publicity and training is an important means to improve farmers' awareness of scientific fertilization and popularize technology. Farmers are the end users of soil testing and formula fertilization technology. It is urgent to teach farmers the methods and models of scientific fertilization. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen the systematic training of technicians at all levels, fertilizer production enterprises and fertilizer distributors, and gradually establish technical personnel and fertilizers. Business license system.
(8) Effect evaluation. Farmers are the ultimate implementers and implementers of soil testing and fertilization techniques, and are the ultimate beneficiaries. Inspect the actual effect of soil testing and formula fertilization, obtain feedback information from farmers in a timely manner, and constantly improve the management system, technical system and service system. At the same time, in order to scientifically evaluate the actual effect of soil testing and formula fertilization, it is necessary to conduct a dynamic survey of certain areas.
(9) Technological innovation. Technological innovation is the scientific and technological support to ensure the long-term effectiveness of soil testing and formula fertilization. Focus on field research methods, soil nutrient testing techniques, fertilizer preparation methods, data processing methods and other innovative research work, and continuously improve the level of soil testing and fertilization technology.